The ketogenic diet, after it became known to the general public, immediately attracted attention and became a favorite among show business stars. Doctors, nutritionists, doctors and athletes have not yet come to a consensus about its effect and effectiveness, but the number of adherents to this diet is growing every year.
What is the keto diet?
The Keto Dietis a low-carbohydrate diet that is high in fat and moderate in protein.
Nutrient intake of the daily diet is broken down as follows:
- up to 10% carbohydrates;
- 50-60% fat;
- 30-40% proteins.
Due to the low content of carbohydrates in the daily menu, the body converts lipids into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The latter enter the brain and serve as a source of energy instead of glucose. This process is called ketosis, hence the name of the diet.
The essence of the keto diet
The peculiarity of the diet insists on the absolute exclusion of fast-digesting carbohydrates and most of the complex, as well as drinks containing caffeine. The diet is based on fatty meats and saturated fats.
This eating style introduces the body into a state of stress in which acetone (ketone bodies) is dynamically produced. The latter, in turn, helps suppress appetite. In ketosis, the body is forced to rebuild to burn the subcutaneous fat layer.
Initially, this nutritional method was not intended to combat obesity. It was believed that it would be an excellent aid in the treatment of certain diseases and rehabilitation in the postoperative period.
It is suitable for those who want to quickly lose a few sentiments of subcutaneous fat, for athletes striving for a relief body, and it is also used in the rehabilitation of patients with epilepsy and oncology. This nutritional technique is a rather complex and delicate process.
It is based on the following principles:
- reducing the amount of carbohydrates consumed to a minimum;
- strict control over sugar and starch entering the body;
- maintaining the drinking balance;
- moderate physical activity;
- maintaining the proportion of fat in the daily diet at 60%;
- ratio of protein to fat 1: 2;
- smooth entry and exit from the diet.
Based on the above principles, the basic rules are logically formed, in accordance with which it is necessary to change the lifestyle so that the adherence to the keto diet is not a thoughtless and uncontrolled process that can significantly worsen the state of the body.
So, diet rules:
- The reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet occurs during the first 8-14 days.
- The number of main meals is at least 5 per day, but 7 is already a lot.
- You need to eat every 3. 5-4 hours.
- Keep track of the portion - it should be small.
- It is advisable to avoid snacking between "sanctioned" meals.
- The effect of the diet comes only with strict adherence to it.
- It is required to increase the volume of consumed clean water up to 3 liters per day.
- For people wishing to adhere to this nutritional method, without medical indications, a specialist consultation is required.
- Do not worry about the amount of lipids in the daily menu - with this style of eating, they are the main energy source for the human body.
- The intensity of physical activity should not be excessively high.
- In order to get into ketosis as quickly as possible, some people practice fasting. Such a radical method is possible, but only if there are no contraindications and a completely healthy and strong organism.
The diet on a keto diet means avoiding certain foods and heavily "leaning" on others. In order to better control and calculate the amount of nutrients that are being supplied, the tables below show the desirable and prohibited foods.
Food List of Products Permits:
- meat products, poultry;
- fish, seafood;
- sausages, mayonnaise;
- some types of vegetables, herbs;
- dried fruits, nuts;
- milk, eggs;
- oils, fats;
- non-alcoholic drinks.
When a ketogenic diet is strictly prohibited:
- starchy vegetables;
- pasta and bakery products, flour;
- some types of fruits and juices;
- sodas and caffeinated drinks;
- sweet milk and alcoholic drinks.
Diet for the initiation and maintenance of ketosis
The essence of the ketogenic diet, as mentioned earlier, is that the body replaces glycolysis with lipolysis. Simply put, it "switches" from the breakdown of carbohydrates to breakdown of fat. This process is called ketosis.
When the amount of carbohydrates consumed per day reaches a minimum of 50 g, the formation of ketones starts. From this moment, the body begins to draw energy from fat cells, respectively, the process of losing weight begins.
Entering ketosis does not happen instantly. It takes the body almost a week to switch to the desired lipolysis.
This happens in four stages:
- Stage 1. Unconditional consumption of glucose.Within half a day after the last meal produced, the body will consume glucose.
- Stage 2. Processing of glycogen.Following glucose, the body moves to stores of glycogen from the liver and muscles. It takes almost 48 hours.
- Stage 3. Processing of fats and proteins.After the body runs out of carbohydrates, from which energy returned, it switches to the synthesis of muscle fibers and fatty acids. This is the most difficult step on the road to ketone formation.
- Stage 4. Fat consumption.Ketosis itself. When the body is accustomed to a minimum of carbohydrates and the process of burning protein becomes slower, then the consumption of fatty acids starts.
The diet for active fat burning and, accordingly, maintaining ketosis is based on the principle of the absolute advantage of fat in the menu.
- fats - from 60 to 75%;
- proteins - from 25 to 35%;
- carbohydrates - up to 10%.
Keep in mind thatshouldn't quit counting calories.The keto diet, like other nutritional practices, requires nutrient management. Especially if the goal of observing it is to lose weight.
To calculate the required amount of nutrients per day, you can use a simple calculation: 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrates and fats are allocated as a percentage.
For example, if a person weighs 80 kg, then 80 g of protein, 300 g of lipids and 20 g of coal are needed per day. If during the transitional period (first week) weakness is felt, then you can increase the number of grams of the last nutrient, but not more than 50 units.
There is no fundamental gender difference in formulating the right diet. Basically, if you do not take into account the type of keto diet, then the women's and men's menu differ in the amount of protein consumed. For men, more nutrients are needed to maintain muscle mass.
Sample Weekly Keto Diet Menu
An approximate budget menu for men looks like this:
|1||First:omelet - 80 g, beef chop - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken breast - 130 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, jelly - 230 g
Third:cottage cheese - 160 g
Fourth:baked fish with herbs - 120 g, brown rice - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|2||First: brown rice pudding - 160 g, toast, tea - 120 g
Second:meat borscht - 240 g, chicken zrazy - 80 g, cabbage salad - 80 g, jelly - 150 g
Third:protein shake - 300 g
Fourth:seafood salad - 180 g, toast with cheese - 70 g, tea - 200 g
|3||First:Scrambled eggs with ham - 150 g, croutons - 15 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken soup - 180 g, beef medallions - 90 g, vegetable salad - 140 g, tea - 180 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:oven baked mushrooms - 120 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 230 g
|4||First:steamed fish cakes - 160 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:borscht - 270 g, meat salad - 110 g, jelly - 100 g
Third:omelette - 120 g
Fourth:red fish - 110 g, toast with cheese - 60 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 250 g
|5||First:boiled eggs - 3 pcs., baked fillet - 120 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:puree soup - 260 g, meat salad - 130 g, jelly - 200 g
Third:rosehip tincture - 250 g, rusk - 20 g
Fourth:baked fish - 180 g, vegetable salad - 120 g, tea - 200 g
|6||First:omelet - 120 g, cottage cheese - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:fish soup - 260 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, chicken cutlets - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Third:green apple puree - 70 g
Fourth:seafood salad - 160 g, boiled chicken - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|7||First:casserole with mushrooms - 180 g, crouton - 10 g, tea - 200 g
Second:chicken soup - 160 g, beef cutlets - 160 g, vegetable salad - 80 g, jelly - 200 g
Third:cottage cheese - 80 g
Fourth:boiled fish - 130 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 180 g
Sample menu for women:
|1||First:omelet - 130 g, meat salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:meat broth - 210 g, stewed brown rice with vegetables - 180 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
Fourth:baked fish - 150 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:fermented baked milk - 250 g
|2||First:fish cutlet - 80 g, toast with ham - 75 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:borscht - 200 g, fish cutlet - 75 g, meat salad - 125 g
Third:avocado - 50 g
Fourth:beef entrecotes - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 230 g
|3||First: scrambled eggs with ham - 80 g, salad with cucumber and eggs - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second:poultry soup - 210 g, rabbit chop - 110 g, fresh vegetables - 80 g
Third:omelet - 160 g
Fourth:baked fish - 90 g, squash potato pancakes - 130 g, jelly - 150 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|4||First:boiled eggs - 3 pcs., meat salad - 160 g, nuts - 30 g
Second:fish soup - 230 g, meat medallions - 80 g, vegetable salad - 110 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
Fourth:beef pate - 60 g, cucumber salad - 120 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:fermented baked milk - 250 g
|5||First:turkey fillet - 120 g, meat salad - 110 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:vegetable puree soup - 170 g, baked fish with brown rice - 170 g
Third:nuts –30 g
Fourth:mushrooms fried with ham and vegetables - 230 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 220 g
|6||First:cottage cheese - 130 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:chicken broth - 130 g, pork chop in cheese batter - 120 g
Third:avocado - 50 g
Fourth:sausages, ham, tea - 220 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|7||First:omelet - 120 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:mushroom soup with meat - 160 g, fried fish - 80 g, vegetable salad - 100 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:cabbage rolls - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 200 g
This type of diet is not "hungry", so choosing and combining dishes is not difficult. Here are some recipes that are easy enough to prepare and still be in ketosis.
Special Keto Bread
- eggs - 3 squirrels;
- Almond flour - 0. 25 cups
- water - 0. 25 cups;
- chopped plantain - 50 g;
- baking powder - 10 g;
- apple cider vinegar - 10 g;
- sea salt - 5 g;
- sesame seeds (optional).
- mix flour, plantain and baking powder;
- bring water to a boil, pour into a bowl with dry ingredients;
- add proteins and vinegar;
- mix the mass with a mixer for 2-3 minutes, until it becomes suitable for sculpting;
- to form future loaves in any form;
- place them on a greased baking sheet;
- sprinkle with sesame seeds on top and place in the oven;
- Bake at 200 degrees on the bottom shelf for about an hour;
- readiness is determined by tapping on the bottom of the loaf;
- the finished bread makes an "empty" sound.
Salmon baked with asparagus
- salmon (fillet) - 1000 g;
- asparagus - 130 g;
- mushrooms - 250 g;
- onions - 40 g;
- garlic - 3 cloves;
- soy sauce - 300 ml;
- sesame oil - 10g;
- butter - 20 g;
- basil - 3 years
- mix soy sauce, basil and garlic;
- cut the fish fillet into pieces, put in an airtight bag, pour over the resulting sauce with spices;
- and marinate in the refrigerator for 60 minutes;
- preheat the oven to 180 degrees;
- after the time has passed, place a baking sheet covered with foil with fish and asparagus in the oven;
- cook for 20 minutes;
- during this time, fry mushrooms and onions in a pan;
- then pour this mixture onto the cooking fish;
- Bake for another 10 minutes.
Chicken casserole with cheese and olives
- chicken (breasts) - 700 g;
- pesto sauce - 90 g;
- cream (whipped) - 400 ml;
- olives (pickled) - 200 g;
- feta cheese - 250 g;
- garlic -1 wedge;
- oil for frying;
- oil (olive) - 40 g;
- salt (sea) - 10 g.
- rinse the meat, cut it into pieces, salt;
- fry on both sides until golden brown;
- mix cream and pesto in a bowl;
- place the chicken in the baking dish;
- top with chopped garlic, olives and cheese;
- Pour cream sauce over;
- bake in the oven at 200 degrees for half an hour;
- when the edges of the dish become sandy, you can take out - the casserole is ready.
- beef - 2 pieces, boneless;
- onion - 1 pc . ;
- garlic - 1 wedge;
- tomato - 2 pcs. ;
- vinegar (apple cider) - 50 g;
- oil (olive) –30 g;
- ground ginger - 7 g;
- salt (sea) - 2 g.
- rinse the meat, make shallow cuts on the top of the steaks;
- peel the onion, cut into small cubes;
- Chop tomatoes into cubes;
- in a preheated frying pan greased with olive oil, place the steaks;
- brown on both sides over medium heat;
- then add tomato cubes, onions and crushed garlic to the meat;
- fry, stirring occasionally, for 5-7 minutes;
- put ginger in a separate bowl, add salt, pour out vinegar;
- add the resulting sauce to the meat, mix;
- set fire to minimum intensity;
- cook under a closed lid until the liquid evaporates;
- sprinkle with herbs when serving.
The Effectiveness of the Keto Diet
As already noted, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of this nutritional method. The keto diet is controversial. It has contraindications, advantages and disadvantages. Not suitable for everyone.
But one thing is for sure - subject to the appropriate rules and principles of nutrition, a person adhering to a ketogenic diet is “doomed” to lose 1 to 3 kg of weight per week. It is widely used by celebrities to get rid of extra centimeters, athletes to create a relief body, and it is also prescribed for certain diseases.
To increase the effectiveness of the diet, it is advisable to adhere to some rules:
- Choose a complex of vitamins and mineralsto support the body.
- It is mandatory to undergo a medical examination,to make sure that there are no contraindications to this eating style. The ketogenic diet, except in some cases, requires "iron" health.
- Carefully analyze the possibility of withdrawal from certain products.If it is not possible to limit yourself, for example, in the consumption of bread or pasta, then it is better to choose a different nutritional method so as not to introduce yourself into an even greater state of stress.
- In the first or second week, while the metabolic process is being rebuilt, try not to bring the lifestyle to fanatical activityand not plan too high physical and mental stress. When the body enters a ketotic state, it is unlikely that there will be an increase in any athletic performance and mental performance.
- It takes some time and skill to get into the habit of cooking properly while sticking to keto.Therefore, you should try to plan your day so that there is no opportunity for an "unauthorized" snack.
- In order to minimize the negative effects of the diet, it is necessary to remember to include in the diet rich in fiber.They improve and normalize the digestive tract.
- It is unlikely that the unpleasant smell of acetone can be avoided, so it is recommended to double your intake of pure water.Correct water balance is the key to effective weight loss.
- Maintaining electrolyte balance is equally important in the process of getting rid of unnecessary centimeters of body fat.Slightly salted food will improve not only the taste of dishes, but also have a positive effect on well-being.
Based on the tasks (whether it is weight loss, drying, weight gain, etc. ), the necessary diet option is selected.
Classic (standard or basic)
- This type is considered the most common and simplest diet.
- It is characterized by a high fat content in the diet, medium - protein, and an extremely minimal amount of carbohydrates.
- Recommended for people with little or no physical activity.
- This type implies the addition of carbohydrates to the diet, but at certain hours and a certain amount.
- The so-called carbohydrate loads occur on training days.
- To increase endurance and intensity, carbons are consumed during training hours (before and after training).
- On rest days, in order to maintain ketosis, the amount of carbohydrates is kept to a minimum (0. 5 or 1 g per kg of body weight), the level of fat is slightly reduced so as not to exceed the calorie content of the daily diet.
- This is the "advanced" option. This implies periodic carbohydrate "feeding".
- The break between “sets” to carbohydrates depends on the objectives, goals and intensity of the exercise.
- At the same time, the weight of fat in the diet is reduced, proteins are increased, and 7-10 g of coal per 1 kg of own weight.
- The download duration is from 8 to 36 hours.
- The intervals can be increased, taking into account the state of the body.
- Recommended for people with high physical activity who feel weak due to lack of carbohydrates.
- those who want to lose weight, dry out, gain muscle mass;
- for epilepsy;
- for oncological diseases.
- This eating technique is not "hungry. "The feeling of hunger is extremely rare.
- Changing metabolism through ketosis promotes faster weight loss compared to other methods.
- There is no clear order of the formation of the menu, the dishes are quite varied. You just need to follow the nutrient intake formula.
- Proven the value of following a keto diet for cancer, epilepsy and other diseases.
- Ketogenic diet whitelisted foods have a low glycemic index. Eating them in food has a positive therapeutic effect and helps in the treatment of acne.
- Very low likelihood of losing muscle mass along with a high percentage of subcutaneous fat burning.
Along with the positive effects of following the keto diet, this technique is not without its drawbacks:
- Diet imbalance.
- Acetone odor from the mouth, from the skin.
- When entering ketosis, you often feel nausea, tiredness, lethargy, and problems with concentration.
- There are contraindications.
- Frequent constipation (or other bowel problems) due to lack of essential vegetables and fruits in the diet.
The Ketogenic Diet
This nutritional technique was originally invented for the treatment of epileptic seizures in adults and children.
Doctors have found that ketogens are formed during the processing of fats in the body, and it is they who have the ability to reduce the frequency of seizures in children and adults with epilepsy.
Since the diet is unbalanced and fatty foods can lead to liver and kidney problems, experts are skeptical about this eating style. In medical practice, there are an equal number of positive and extremely negative results of its appointment.
The decision to use the ketogenic diet by epileptics is made only by a specialist. Treatment by the technique is carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor!
Studies have shown that for people with cancer, the combination of classical therapy and a ketogenic diet reduces the risk of metastases and disease recurrence by 75%.
Unlike those patients who normally eat, adherents of the keto diet feel better, the body recovers faster, and treatment has a positive trend. The state of ketosis deprives cancer cells of energy, makes them starve, which significantly improves the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapy.
As noted above, the keto diet has a number of contraindications.
You can't stick to it when:
- lactation and pregnancy;
- high cholesterol levels;
- diabetes mellitus;
- the presence of diseases of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, heart;
- lipid digestion disorder;
- hormonal disruptions.
The positive effect of this eating style is manifested in different ways, in accordance with the individual body. Depending on the type of diet chosen, a weight loss of 5 to 10 kg is likely in the first month.
To save the result, you need to follow a few simple rules:
- In order to maintain the result and not enter the body into a state of stress after the end of the keto diet, it is necessary to make the exit from this diet gradually.
- Do not pounce on foods prohibited in the diet- the risk of returning lost pounds in double volume is too high.
- The amount of fat in the diet needs to be reduced a little, and carbohydrates should be added 5 g per day.
- With proper adherence to a ketogenic diet and a periodic medical examination, it is possible to improve not only external data by getting rid of excess weight, but also radically change the quality of life in a positive direction.
Someone has a result in the second week, while someone has to wait up to three months. This variance in time does not indicate the ineffectiveness of the diet - in all likelihood, adjustment of the ratio of nutrients in the diet is required.